Monday, August 24, 2020

apocope - definition and examples of apocope in English

apocope - definition and instances of apocope in English Apocope is aâ rhetorical term for the exclusion of at least one sounds or syllables from the finish of a word. Likewise called end-cut, apocope is a sort of elision. Historical underpinnings: From the Greek, to cut off Models and Observations In numerous poor neighborhoods, the Sandinista Front has more road cred than the nearby youth gang.(Tim Rogers, Even Gangsters Need Their Mamas. Time magazine, Aug. 24, 2007)Season your profound respect for some time with an attent ear.(William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Act I, scene 2)Loss of sounds from the finish of a word is known as apocope, as in the way to express kid as chile.(Thomas Pyles and John Algeo, The Origins and Development of the English Language. Harcourt, 1982)After he left the city, a large number of individuals toasted him with lager at a barbie, an Australian barbecue.(Pope in Australia, The New York Times, Dec. 1, 1986)Newspapers have their own style and it is significant that your component matches it. For example, it would be silly composing an element for a sullen week after week in the style of something increasingly reasonable for a chaps mag.(Susan Pape and Sue Featherstone, Feature Writing: A Practical Introduction. Wise, 2000) New Words and Names Many English words have come about because of apocope, among them film (from cinematograph) and photograph (from photo). Names frequently experience apocope (e.g., Barb, Ben, Deb, Steph, Theo, Vince).(Bryan Garner, Garners Modern American Usage. Oxford University Press, 2009) Lost Vowels Apocope is a procedure that erases word-last fragments, including unstressed (diminished) vowels. In Middle English, numerous words, for example, sweet, root, and so on were articulated with a last [e], however when of present day English, these last diminished vowels had been lost. We despite everything see indications of last diminished vowels in the antiquated spelling of words like olde.(Mary Louise Edwards and Lawrence D. Shriberg, Phonology: Applications in Communicative Disorders. School Hill Press, 1983)Oliver Sacks on His Favorite WordOne of my preferred words is apocopeI use it (for instance) in A Surgeons Life: . . . the finish of the word discarded by a prudent apocope (Anthropologist on Mars, Vintage, p. 94).I love its sound, its touchiness (as do a portion of my Tourettic friendsfor when it turns into a four-syllable verbal spasm, which can be disabled or imploded into a tenth of a second), and the way that it packs four vowels and four syllables into a simple seven let ters.(Oliver Sacks, cited by Lewis Burke Frumkes in Favorite Words of Famous People. Marion Street Press, 2011) Elocution: eh-PAHK-eh-pee

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Princess Charming Essay -- Disney Fairytales Essays

Princess Charming Strategy I began considering a fitting subject for my Field Report months prior. I thought about the universe of Punk culture in Chicago. At that point I chose I knew a lot of effectively about this so I considered maybe skateboard culture. At any rate along these lines I could get the hang of something that I was curious about with firsthand. Yet at the same time, I have had a lot of presentation to skateboarding so I continued looking. I thought about the effectively endorsed points and took a gander at legends in fantasies. I have been an aficionado of Disney films since I was close to nothing, and other than thinking about which princess I wished to resemble most, I never thought about them. When I started to consider them, I concocted a few ends that make my perspective on Disney, and of fantasies all in all, not exactly otherworldly. I presumed that my reason would be that to be sure fantasies are rich with legends thinking about their immortality, oral custom, and legendary stories loaded with normal subjects. Be that as it may, these themes go past simply sentiment, experience, and underhandedness. Remembered for this rundown ought to be the unreasonable norms for female excellence, female reliance on guys for personality, female accommodation, and the possibility that ladies should be some way or another spared by a gallant man. This examination isn't planned to demonstrate that fantasies are themselves insidious or prevent perusers from ever viewing another Disney re-make. It will rather ideally urge watchers to watch with a progressively basic eye, and in perceiving both the positive and negative folkloric qualities of the movies, change the idea of a fantasy as a young lady's fantasy, to what it truly is; an imaginary story proposed for the diversion and entertainment of youngsters. ... ...e how filmmaking and its characters have advanced after some time and what sort of progress we are making. In general however, I appreciated taking a gander at these two films from another, progressively basic, point of view. There are a great deal of shrouded implications that I wasn't beforehand mindful of. When I began paying heed, they got pervasive. I anticipate the day when a lady keeps the door open for a man, a forceful and certain lady isn't portrayed as the scalawag, and a man anticipates his princess beguiling. Works Cited: Campbell, Joseph. 1961. Takeoff, Chapter 1 in Hero with a Thousand Faces, first distributed 1949, 49-95. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Cinderella. Walt Disney, 1950. Green, Philip. Splits in Hollywood belief system and Gender in Hollywood. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1998. Resting Beauty. Walt Disney, 1959.

Friday, July 24, 2020

How to Write a WINNING Resume - FREE on Amazon October 18-22!

How to Write a WINNING Resume - FREE on Amazon October 18-22! Im happy to announce that for FIVE days beginning October 18, 2013, my new e-book, How to Write a WINNING Resume 50 Tips to Reach Your Job Search Target, will be available for FREE on Amazon Kindle! This e-book takes you through the entire resume writing process, from concept and preparation through formatting and special issues you might face. Heres a sample of one of the 50 tips included in the book. Download the book for FREE on Amazon, October 18th through 22nd, to get the remaining 49! Consider Including a Chart, Graph or Testimonial If you are in sales or you are an executive, you might choose to create a chart or graph as a pictorial representation of your accomplishments. If you’re a receptionist or a nursery school teacher, a graph would be overkill. Here are some samples of a graph or chart included in a resume: Only use a graph if appropriate for the position to which you’re applying. In Career Directors International’s survey Global Hiring Trends 2012, 33% of respondents reported that they still have not received a resume with a chart or a graph. 24% of those who had seen charts and graphs found them helpful or very helpful, while 22% found them distracting. These results are rather inconclusive but indicate that if you work in a conservative industry (such as insurance or finance) it might be best to stick to the tried and true bullet format; in more innovative industries, or for marketing and sales positions, charts and graphs are a great fresh approach. For someone climbing the ladder within the same company, charts and graphs might also be very effective. When in doubt, keep it simple! Testimonials You might not particularly like tooting your own horn, and frankly, some things are much more credible when said by people other than yourself. If you have received recommendations on LinkedIn ®, positive feedback in evaluations, or testimonials in any form, consider putting them on your resume! Here’s what a testimonial might look like:   The use of testimonials is becoming more and more common on resumes. In Global Hiring Trends 2012, 29% of those surveyed said a testimonial would influence their decision positively. So take advantage of this trend and let your potential employer know what past employers (or professors if you are a new graduate) have to say about you! You may place the testimonial in the top third of the resume, near the relevant position, or anywhere that makes sense and is visually appealing. ********** Was this article helpful? You can find more tips like this (49 more to be exact!) in my new do-it-yourself resume writing e-book titled How to Write a WINNING Resume 50 Tips to Reach Your Job Search Target. And specifically for executives, Ive authored a second version just for you called How to Write a STELLAR Executive Resume 50 Tips to Reach Your Job Search Target. ** From October 18th through 22nd, get your copy of How to Write a WINNING Resume absolutely FREE on Amazon! Or purchase How to Write a STELLAR Executive Resume for just $9.97.**               Remember: When you send me a link to your Amazon review, your name will be entered into a bi-annual drawing for a $50 Amazon gift card! You will also be entered into my monthly drawing to win Mary Elizabeth Bradfords Job Search Success System (winner of a 2011 CDI Career Innovator Award and a $97 value check it out here). Click the images above to check out the reviews, purchase, or write a review of your own for a chance to win!

Friday, May 22, 2020

Justifying research methodologies in the economic world - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1815 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? This Chapter will discuss the methodology used in this research. The justification for the chosen methodology will also be analysed. It will also look at the data collection technique and the approach to be used for analysis to arrive at the findings. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Justifying research methodologies in the economic world" essay for you Create order Exploratory research such as structured questionnaire will be used to obtain the primary data. This questionnaire was analysed using both the qualitative and quantitative approach. The primary data will also be supported with secondary data such as text books, journals, and the banks website. The goal of this research is to critically analyse Operational risk Management is UK banks, a case study of Barclays UK retail bank. JUSTIFICATION FOR THE CHOICE OF METHODOLOGY According to Saunders, (2007), a research strategy can be exploratory, descriptive and explanatory, taking an inductive or deductive approach. Whatever the case, it is important that the choice of strategy is guided by the research questions, objectives, the extent of existing knowledge , amount of time and other resources available and the researchers philosophical underpinnings all geared towards answering the research questions and meeting the researchers objectives. The three main research strategies are; Exploratory research strategy, according to Creswell, (2009) explores a phenomenon by using quantitative data in the interpretation of qualitative findings. It is particularly useful for a researcher who wants to explore a phenomenon and at the same time expand on qualitative findings. Saunders, (2007) however, noted three principal ways of conducting exploratory research; Literature search Interview of experts in the subject Conducting focus group interviews. D escriptive research strategy is used to gain insight of the variable of interest as it naturally exists and to capture interesting, behaviours that occur naturally (Gravetter and Forzano, 2009). The Observational research, survey research and case study research are the three researches are seen as the different types of descriptive research. Explanatory research strategy studies a situation or a problem in order to establish a causal relationship between variables. Quantitative and qualitative data are therefore used in explorative research strategy (Saunders, 2007). These strategies make use of two distinct approaches; the Induction and Deduction approach. Induction approach observes a relationship in a single case which will be used to observe in several other cases in order to construct a general theory to cover all the cases. The deduction approach simply uses theory to observe particular observations (Gilbert, 2008). For the purpose of this study and in order to achieve the aims and objectives of this research, the researcher will combine the descriptive and explanatory research strategies, using the inductive approach. This is because a framework or theory will be used to analyse a case study. The descriptive research will further portray the accurate profile of the events or situations in the case study. The researchers choice of descriptive strategy will be the use of Survey and Case study research and Archival research. Survey strategy will be used to collect quantitative data which will be analysed quantitatively using descriptive method. The researcher will also be able to bring out possible reasons for particular relationship between variables. The merits of this method, according to Saunders (2007) are that the researcher will have control over the research process. The samples generated will also be a representation of the whole population. However, the limitation is that this process is time consuming as the analysis is depend ent on the respondents. However, the respondents might be bored with the questions if the questions are much. Yin, (2009) describes a case study as an empirical enquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon in depth and within its real-life context especially when the boundaries between the phenomenon and context are clearly not evident. This, he argues makes a case study distinct from all other researches. Saunders, (2007) emphasized on the importance of case study saying it has the ability to answer the questions on Why, What and How with particular emphasis to What and How. The data collection techniques employed in a case study are usually observation, interviews, documentary analysis and questionnaires. A case study can either be single or multiple case study (Yin, 2009, Saunders, 2007). Single case study provides the research an opportunity to observe and analyse a phenomenon, hence single case study defines the actual case. On the other hand, a multiple case study es tablishes a benchmark, using the findings of a first case to analyse the other cases. In addition, a case study can be holistic or embedded. It is holistic when the research is on a single organization as a whole and it is embedded when a number of sub-units within an organization are used for analysis. A multiple case study will be employed in this research as the research will engage in assessing the actual performance of the operational risk framework of Barclays UKRB against its policy framework. The researcher will issue questionnaire, one to the senior management, the managers, supervisors and the staff. This aim is to analyse how operational risk is viewed at the top and how its implementation at the bottom. This will give an in-depth analysis and draw a single set of cross-case conclusion. Archival research makes use of archival records by using administrative records and documents as the principal source of data (Saunders, 2009). The historical undertone however does not mean its only historical documents, modern documents can also be used. These products are important as they form part of the day to day activities of the organization in order words they are part of reality being studied. Archival research also has its limitations. Some documents are classified confidential documents and as such might not be accessed. Secondly, the available data might not contain the information needed or meet the objectives of the researcher (Saunders, 2009). This research will make use of archival documents sourced from annual reports, independent sources and company websites. This will be used to support the survey, explanatory and descriptive strategies. This will give an in depth knowledge on the activities of the banks, culture and strategy thereby helping the researcher achieve the research objectives. RESEARCH DESIGN To illustrate, before a good building is put in place, there is an initial design by an architect who has a style. A research design deals with the aims, uses, intentions and purposes of research. It also deals with the constraints of location, time, money and availability of staff. Just like an architect, a research design has its own unique style with the researchers preference and ideas (Hakim, 2000). The three approaches to research are Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed method research. Qualitative research explores or understands individuals or group attributed to social or human problem (Creswell, 2009). Woods, (2006) noted that a good qualitative research focus on natural settings, interest in meanings, perspective and understanding, emphasizes on process and uses an inductive analysis and grounded theory. He however lists eight methods of qualitative research as observation, interviews, sampling, written materials, questionnaires, validity, ethics and qualitative research assessed such as documentary analysis, observation and interviews. Qualitative research is also seen as a situated activity which locates the observer in the world (Ritchie and Lewis, 2003). This is usually subjective because the researcher interprets the data based on participant observation, in-depth interviews, observation of data collected etc. One good advantage is that the researcher tends to be in control of the research. Qualitative research technique is also more likely to present better quality results and easily interpretable findings (Pickard, 2007). Ritchie and Lewis (2003) emphasized on the importance of a qualitative research when they stressed that their natural and interpreting approach is attached to the meaning that individuals ascribe to beliefs, actions, values and decisions. Robson (2003) highlights on the richness and fullness of the qualitative research, emphasizing on its ability to restore a subject in as real a manner as possible. Quantitative Research is a means for testing individual theories by examining the relationship among variables which can be measured with instruments, using statistical procedures to measure numbered data (Creswell, 2009). The quantitative method also referred to as being realist or sometimes positivist aims to uncover an existing reality (Muijs, 2004). One good advantage of Quantitative research is its simplicity and lack of ambiguity (Gilbert, 2008). Surveys are the most common type of quantitative method. Mixed Method research combines both the quantitative and qualitative methods. This method is increasingly used for business and management research. It uses the quantitative and qualitative data collection techniques and analysis procedures. The mixed method performs the triangulation method by using two or more independent sources of data collection to corroborate research findings .It also uses qualitative methods to explain the relationship between quantitative variables (Saunders, 2009, Creswell , 2009). This research will employ the mixed method research, using questionnaires, written documents, documentary reports and secondary data to support the analysis. Mixed method is highly recommended for case studies as it helps the investigator address a broader range of historical and behavioural issues. The findings are however accurate and convincing (Yin, 2009). However, the limitation of this method according to Yin, (2009) is that it can be overly burdensome and more expensive than the single method. DATA COLLECTION Two methods of data collection to be employed are the Primary and Secondary data collection methods. A questionnaire will be issued to respondents through online software (Qualtrics) who will answer the same kind of questions. This is because it is an efficient way of collecting responses and opinions from a large sample before analysis. It also gives individuals the opportunity to express their honest views anonymously without fear or prejudice. Secondary data will be collected from secondary sources such as annual reports, Barclays bank websites, intranet, independent sources and online sources. This will be used to complement the primary data. DATA ANALYSIS The data collected using from the primary source which is the questionnaire will be analysed using both excel spreadsheet and SPSS which will run descriptive statistic to identify trends and patterns in the data set. Simple relationships using bar charts, histograms, line graphs, and scatter plots will be developed with excel. More in-depth analysis will then be carried out using SPSS which will investigate the relationships between the identified metrics and provide significant values based on the analysis. The choice of SPSS was because of its ability to do statistical analysis in addition to data management (case selection, file reshaping, creating derived data) and data documentation. The descriptive statistical process will be used to confirm the normality of the distribution of the data set. Some of the exploratory analysis will test for normality in the data set. A normally distributed data set will have 68% of the data fall within 1 standard deviation of the mean, 95% of the data will fall within 2 standard deviations of the mean, and almost all (99.7%) of the data will fall within 3 standard deviations of the mean. Correlation analysis will be used to describe the strength and direction of the linear relationship between two metrics and will quantify how much two uncertain quantities vary together and the relationships between them. The qualitative data will however be used to support the quantitative analysis.

Thursday, May 7, 2020

History Cxc Adjustments to Emancipation - 2773 Words

Adjustments to Emancipation | Coming of the Chinese, Europeans, Indians and Africans | Akia Selver | TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Page 1 2. Bakcground†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Page 2 3. Africans†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Page 3 4. Europeans†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã ¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Page 5. Madeirans†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Page 6. East Indians†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Page 7. Contracts†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Page 8. Effects†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â ‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Page 9. Bibliography †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦...Page INTRODUCTION This project is based on the topic Adjustments to Emancipation from 1838 –†¦show more content†¦They sought other employment or asked to be repatriated. In 1841 the Jamaican government made another attempt and imported more whites from Britain. After more deaths and requests to be sent home, the government finally realized that plantation labour from Northern Europe was a hopeless prospect. A total of 200 immigrants arrived in St.Kitts. MADEIRANS In the 1830s Planters in Trinidad and Guyana turned to Madeira, the Portuguese colony in the Atlantic where sugar was the main crop. The first 125 Madeiran cane workers come to Trinidad in 1834, through Mr. Seale, an English merchant. 559 landed in Guyana the following year. Private importations of Madeiran began in 1835 but were suspended in 1839 while the British government examined the conduct of the schemes. Maideiran immigration was re-opened on an official basis in 1841 and large numbers went to British Guiana. The numbers decreased after 1846. In 1848 the scheme was suspended again. It was resumed in 1850, but was not popular. By 1856 Portuguese Madeirans controlled nearly all the retailing businesses in Guyana and St Vincent. The immigration period lasted from 1835 to 1882. The scheme was very irregular, the death rate was of the new arrivals were high and most of them went into trading as soon as their contracts ended. In addition, the Madeiran Government objected to the scheme, since so many of its citizens were leaving, andShow MoreRelatedHistory Cxc Adjustments to Emancipation2766 Words   |  12 PagesAdjustments to Emancipation | Coming of the Chinese, Europeans, Indians and Africans | Akia Selver | TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Page 1 2. Bakcground†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Page 2 3. Africans†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Page 3 4. Europeans†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Page 5. Madeirans†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Page 6. East Indians†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Page 7. Contracts†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Tinnitus Management Therapy Free Essays

Goebel, Gerhard; Rief, Winfried; Wise, Karen. 1998. Meeting the expectations of chronic tinnitus patients: Comparison of a structured group therapy program for tinnitus management with a problem solving group. We will write a custom essay sample on Tinnitus Management Therapy or any similar topic only for you Order Now Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 44 (6). 681-685 A therapy called tinnitus management therapy or TMT was developed using ideas of cognitive-behavioral therapy for two different groups. One-hundred fourty-four patients suffering form tinnitus aged 19-74 years were treated with this TMT compared with a normal kind of problem solving group therapy. The patients self-rated themselves on how helpful each treatment was in dealing with life problems as well as how seriously they thought that were being treated and taken seriously. These self-ratings helped professionals find that the TMT therapy worked better for these patients in coping with all the aspects of tinnitus. Anderson, Gerhard. 1997. Prior treatments in a group of tinnitus sufferers seeking treatment. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. 66 (2). 107-110. Four groups were obtained from sixty-nine tinnitus sufferers aged 22-76 years to try and describe the distress they go through based on if they have had treatment or not. The four groups were: not treatment (24 people), acupuncture (19 people), relaxation (13 people), other treatments. (13 people). These people were asked to rate helplessness, capacity for rest, acceptability of change, emotional effects, hearing and ability to ignore using the Tinnitus Effect Questionaire. The only major difference that was found was that the untreated group had more acceptability for change. Hegel, Mark T; Martin, John B. 1998. Behavioral treatment of pulsative tinnitus and headache following traumatic head injuries: Objective polygraphic assessment of change. Behavior Modification. 22 (4). Pg. 563-573 This study was done on a 37 year old male that had a traumatic head injury. He was evaluated and put through behavioral treatment that included a polygraphic assessment of vasomotor function among other things. Lifestyle modifications and behavioral modifications helped in both functioning and figuring out the underlying physiology that relates to tinnitus. Anderson, Gerhard; Larsen, Hans-Christian. 1997. Cognitive-behavioral treatment of tinnitus in otosclerosis : A case report. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy. 25. 79-82 A male patient aged 52 years with an ear disease (otosclerosis) had symptoms that included tinnitus which caused him obvious physiological distress. The doctors found that the tinnitus that he had was stress-induced and had experienced attacks which seemed horribly unbearable. He was given ten sessions of a cognitive-behavioral therapy program and was tested before and after to find results. These results showed that the attacks became less frequent, easier to handle, and decreased annoyance, which in turn helped him cope better. Erlandsson, Soly I. 1998. Psychological counseling in a medical setting-some clinical examples given by patients with tinnitus and Meneire’s disease. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling. 20 (4). 265-276. Counseling patients with Meniere’s disease showed that a defensive response to tinnitus or Meniere’s disease caused a state of dysfunction and that their psychological adaption was hindered. Some of the patients found it difficult to even talk about the first attack that they experienced of the tinnitus and Meniere’s disease. The counselors concluded that the reason these people are trying to find help is because they are afraid of suffering a mental breakdown. They don’t think it has much to do with the physical disease, so specialists need to come at it from a psychological perspective. How to cite Tinnitus Management Therapy, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

Public Health v.s Individual Liberty Essay Example

Public Health v.s Individual Liberty Paper In Typhoid Mary, Mary Mallon is isolated on North Brother Island from 1907 to 1910 and again from 1915 until she dies in 1938. Mary Mallon is striped of her civil liberties and is unwillingly quarantined to preserve public health. This brings about an interesting issue, an issue that is just as important today with regard to AIDS as it was nearly a century ago with typhoid. Many have suggested, then and now, that if an individual endangers the public health of the community that that person’s liberties should become secondary to the safety of the community. However, people that contract diseases are unwilling victims of it and they too are members of the community. There must be a balance. While protecting the larger community, the individual must too be protected. One’s individual liberties should not be denied in order to protect public health. When facing a public health concern like a contagious disease, isolating people with the disease does not guarantee its elimination but it does rob these people of their freedoms. We will write a custom essay sample on Public Health v.s Individual Liberty specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Public Health v.s Individual Liberty specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Public Health v.s Individual Liberty specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The purpose of this essay is to suggest that protecting an individual’s liberties is just as important as protecting public health and that isolation should not be used as a method of preventing the spread of disease. Using two prime examples we will look at how isolation violates civil liberties. The first example is of Mary Mallon’s isolation. This example illustrates that a well-informed, cooperative carrier, can be a far more useful tool than isolation. The second example is of Cuba’s national HIV/AIDS containment program. From this example one can see the negative impact that isolation has on the stricken and the community and that isolation, as a means of preventing the spread of disease ultimately does not work. Mary Mallon arrives in the United States in 1896 at the age of fifteen. Although she is poorly educated and unskilled, Mallon is bright and spirited. She moves from job to job, always seeking to improve her life. After discovering her aptitude in preparing food she becomes a cook. In the summer of 1906, a wealthy banker by the name of Charles Henry Warren rented a large house in Oyster Bay, Long Island as a vacation home for himself and his family. He employs maids, gardeners, and a cook to provide the services at his new home. On the fourth of August, he hires Mary Mallon as the family cook. On the twenty-seventh of August, the household is stricken with typhoid fever. The owner of the house, George Thompson, fearful that he will be unable to rent the house ever again, becomes determined to learn the source of the disease. Thus, he hires George Soper, a sanitary engineer, to conduct an investigation. At first, Soper thought soft clams might have been the initial agent. He later, shifts his attention to household members, and finally to the cook. When he learns that Mary Mallon is only hired shortly before the beginning of the illnesses, he becomes convinced that she is a healthy carrier of typhoid fever. He tracks Mary Mallon to her new place of employment. He approaches her with all the finesse of a bull in a china shop. He tells her she is spreading disease through the food she cooks and demands that she provides him with stool, urine and blood samples. Mary attacks Soper with a meat fork and he is forced to retreat without any samples. Mary Mallon refuses to believe that she is spreading the infectious disease, typhoid fever. She declares that she has never had typhoid in her life. Soper is equally adamant in proving his theory. To do so, he reconstructs Mallon’s work history. He finds that in the previous ten years, Mallon had worked as a cook for eight different families. Of the eight, seven families had experienced typhoid outbreaks. He also finds that a total number of twenty-two people have taken ill and one has died. Soper’s data persuades the New York City Health Inspector that Mary Mallon is indeed a carrier of the disease. In March of 1907, she is carried off, kicking and screaming, to a hospital for testing. Her feces show high concentrations of typhoid bacilli and she is sent to an isolation cottage on the grounds of Riverside Hospital, located on a small island near Riker’s Island. There she remains for three years. This is when Mary Mallon becomes known as Typhoid Mary. After three years, Mary is released with the proviso that she will stay in touch with the health department and that she not work as a cook. For a time, she complies with the requirements. She works in a laundry; however, this job does not sustain her in wages or in satisfaction. Therefore she changes her name to Mrs. Brown and returns to cooking. For three months, she cooks at Sloane Maternity hospital in Manhattan. During her time there, at least dozens of doctors, nurses, staff, and even children contacted typhoid Fever. Two of the victims die. Mary Mallon is unmasked as Typhoid Mary. She is again sent to North Border Island where she lives for twenty-three years until she dies. Mary Mallon’s isolation is a prime example of how public health policies can be discriminatory and unfairly applied. Mary Mallon is not the only known carrier of typhoid, yet she is the only one to be robbed of her civil liberties because she is a healthy carrier. When she dies, in 1938, a newspaper notes that there are 237 other healthy carriers under observation by the health department. Mary Mallon is, however, the only person to be forced to live in isolation. Mary Mallon’s story, although very tragic, can be an extremely useful asset in the United States’ efforts to create a health care system that is in no way discriminatory. It is exemplary of the kinds of pitfalls that the United States should avoid. One can see from Typhoid Mary that there is a great need for fairness in the health care system. For example, if Mary Mallon felt health system was fair and non-discriminatory she would have had more confidence in the system. Thus, she would have been more likely to cooperate. There is also a need for better education on how diseases are spread. If Mary Mallon had been better educated on how to prevent the spread of the infectious disease, the combination of her willingness to cooperate with her knowledge of how to protect others from infection would have meant that both her rights and liberties would have been protected as well as the public’s health. Education is a far more powerful tool in preventing the spread of infectious diseases than isolation ever could be. However, the health system must first become fair, non-discriminatory, and trustworthy, and all citizens, especially those stricken with disease, must perceive it as such. This will lead more and more people to trust in the public health system. This trust then allows the system to effectively educate more people that carry a disease, so they can refrain from activities that put others at risk. Johan Giesecke, an infectious disease specialist, believes that â€Å"strong public confidence in a benevolent and non-discriminatory state and health care system is more valuable than repressive legislation† (Leavitt; 245). In the end, everyone benefits from this method of prevention. This method prevents the spread of disease better than isolation ever will. At the same time the rights and liberties of the infected are being protected along with the health of the community. In thinking about how far the government might take disease control, isolation emerges as a frightening possibility. Nevertheless, some states have actually considered quarantining people with HIV/AIDS. One can argue that this kind of action goes against democracy, against the Constitution, and against the very foundation the United States is built on. Clearly, isolating people deprives individuals of their god giving rights as human beings and as Americans. Isolation robs these individuals of cherished values like: liberty, privacy, freedom of speech, and freedom of choice. Cuba is another prime example of why the United States should not use isolation as a public health preservation tactic. In 1986 Cuba initiated a national program to contain AIDS. This program includes: systematic screenings, isolating of all HIV-positive people in sanitariums, and requiring all HIV-positive pregnant women to abort their babies. Cuba found initial success in containing AIDS due to this plan along with other determining factors. Drug use, which is a major means of HIV transmission, has been rigorously reduced in Cuba. Cuba also upholds a severely strict sexual conduct code. It also benefits from its position in the hemisphere; because of its economic isolation it is relatively underexposed to the disease. One can state that isolation of HIV-positive people has contributed greatly to the initial success of Cuba keeping the disease at bay, but this success comes at the expense of Cuban citizens. Citizens comply with the program not of their own free will. This program does more harm than good. It forces HIV-positive people to live away from their friends and family in sanitariums and deprives them of their civil liberties. These sanitariums seem to be nothing more than prisons. The people who are forced to live there are called â€Å"inmates† and they are kept in with walls and barbed wire. Some of these inmates have compared these sanitariums to concentration camps. The program also robs HIV-positive women of the right to choose because they must abort their babies, whether they want to or not. Also, the systematic screenings are an invasion of privacy. What makes the situation worse is that these people are striped of their liberties and isolated in vain. Recent studies show that the program has not been effective in stopping the epidemic. Instead, it leads people to believe that all the HIV/AIDS-positive people are isolated and they gain a false sense of security, which results in a reverse effect. Due to this sense of security they engage in unprotected sex and thus continue to spread the infection. The United States has two courses of action that it can take. The first is to legally decide to follow the lead of the Cuban government. Therefore, placing the individual rights and liberties of the sick at a secondary level, while deciding that the protection of the public health is a far greater national priority. Such changes would move the country in a direction opposite of the democracy all Americans love and believe in. This would foster discrimination of those that have a disease, like HIV, at state, community, and health care levels. Amilca Palmer, a journalist that did a study on Cuba’ sanitariums, writes, â€Å"It is a telling sign that Cuba is not an utopian socialist world where everyones needs are met, but one where the individual is erased, especially that individual who cant conform to the social norm† (Palmer; http://www. stg. brown. edu). This is certainly not the direction in which the United States should follow. Instead, the United States should look to other options, options that uphold democracy not dictatorship. The second choice it can consider is to make civil rights and liberties an equally dominant national priority as public health. Therefore, establishing policies of fair non-discriminatory health care. This kind of policy will earn the confidence of all American citizens, sick and well alike, and provide them legitimate, long-term protection that is accommodating. Such changes would move the country in a direction that fosters our value system of individual rights and liberties, while emphasizing the importance of public health. In conclusion, Typhoid Mary written nearly a century ago brings up an important issue, an issue that affects many people still today. Mary Mallon’s story teaches people that there must be fairness in public health policies, and that these policies must avoid discrimination and abuse of individuals who carry a disease. Many people believe that when deciding between an individual’s rights and the health of a community, the community’s safety becomes paramount and the individual’s liberties become simply secondary. Thus, isolation is not considered as a violation of one’s rights but as a right of the community to be protected from these carriers. However, it is imperative that one keeps in mind that the stricken are members of the community too and their rights are just as important. Isolation does not eliminate the spread of disease. In some ways it may actually help facilitate the spread of disease. Yet, some states in the U. S. are considering using isolation to lessen then spread of HIV/AIDS in the country. One can argue that isolation goes against democracy, against the Constitution, and against the very foundation the United States is built on. Bibliography : http://www. lihistory. com/7/hs702a. htm http://history1900s. about. com/library/weekly/aa062900a. htm http://www. stg. brown. edu/projects/projects. old/classes/mc166k/summarie/indys. html http://www. cubasolidarity. net/cubahol2. html Leavitt, Judith Walzer. Typhoid Mary. Beacon Press, Boston, Massachusetts, 1996.